February 24, 2010

March Your Way to Solutions for Your Life

2/24/10 -
Attend Pinellas County Extension’s March Classes

Pinellas County Extension offers residents a wide variety of classes to help them make sustainable decisions.

Be sure to check out our lunch break on-line classes in March, “Solutions in 30.” Each week this month you will learn or rediscover all about the new hybrid and AFV cars on the market today, the basics of sound financial management , nuclear energy and how to calculate your own “environmental footprint.”

Solutions in 30:
March 10, 2010 - Hybrids, AFVs and Green Driving
March 17, 2010 - Financial Basics – Are You Ready
March 24, 2010 - New, Clear Days
March 31, 2010 - Calculating Your Environmental Footprint

Families and Consumers:
March 8 - Healthy Solutions : Eating Well with Diabetes
March 10, 2010 - Focus on Finances

Commercial (Pesticide/FNGLA/ISA) CEUs:
March 9, 2010 - Integrated Pest Management Update
March 16, 2010 - Best Management Practices
March 24, 2010 - Roundup License Training – LCLM
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day Session 1
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day Session 2
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day Session 3
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day Session 4
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day Session 5
March 30, 2010IFAS CEU Day Session at 6

Lawn & Garden:
March 6, 2010 - Rain Harvesting Workshop
March 10, 2010 - You Can Have a Happy, Healthy Fl.-Friendly Lawn at 2:00 pm
March 10, 2010 - You Can Have a Happy, Healthy Fl.-Friendly Lawn at 6:15 pm
March 24, 2010 - How to Repot Orchids

Urban Wildlife:
March 10, 2010 - Welcome to Florida---Help!
March 27, 2010 - Sustainable Seafood ;What’s on Your Menu?

Sustainable Living:
March 20, 2010 - The Power of Free Money
March 24, 2010 - The Basics of Climate Change

Pathways Adventure Series:
March 6, 2010 - Simple Eating Makes a Healthier Planet

You can register for classes on-line at Please look for the “Online Class Registration” button on the right hand side near the top of the page.

Caring For Your Mature Citrus Tree

Cindy Peacock, Extension Specialist, Pinellas County Extension

Most of us have a citrus tree of some kind growing in our yards. For new comers to Florida it has been very popular to have a citrus tree in the yard to be able to enjoy fresh picked fruit. We used to have an abundance of commercial citrus growing in Pinellas County also.

In 1830s, Odet Philippe, a European American pioneer, arrived in the Pinellas peninsula and established the area’s first citrus grove on his plantation. Philippe was a key figure in the early development of Florida’s citrus industry. The Orange belt railroad was built in 1888 and soon after many farmers planted groves in Pinellas County. The groves were planted on elevated, well-drained soils that are common in parts of Pinellas County.

In later years, rapid population growth, urbanization, high land values, and freezes in the 1980s caused most of the remaining citrus growers to abandon the citrus business in Pinellas and sell their groves for development.

Many of the developers left citrus trees in the yards of the homes that they built. You may have one of these mature citrus trees in your yard today that you are tending to. Citrus trees can easily live up to 50 years old, and sometimes considerably longer. They may look bad but, still produce. Here are some tips that will help you take care of your mature citrus tree.

Citrus trees like a well-drained soil. The roots need oxygen and if the tree is in a low area where water stands for a day or two after rains the tree can “drown.” When planting a new citrus tree, be sure to choose a well-drained area.

Established citrus trees can survive with one inch of water per week in hot, dry weather and with less frequent watering during the cooler parts of the year. During the summer rainy season, turn your irrigation system off and let the rain water your tree. If the leaves curl up from the side edges this is a good indication that the tree needs water. Over-watering can stress citrus trees. A stressed tree can become more susceptible to diseases and insects. When watering, direct the water to the roots and not the trunk. To get the most fruit from your tree, full sun is best. If your old tree is getting shaded it will not produce as much fruit. Pruning overhanging branches of nearby trees to let in more sunlight may help.

Citrus trees grow much better with bare soil under the canopy. Grass or flowers should not be planted under them. Mulch is not recommended around citrus trees. If you do mulch, put down a thin layer and keep it a foot or two away from the trunk. Mulch applied directly around the trunks of citrus trees can encourage foot rot disease, a fungal disease that can kill citrus trees.

Mature citrus trees require little pruning. Mature trees tend to have dead branches within the canopy. Pruning out this deadwood can be done any time during the year. Dead wood should be pruned back to the live branch that it grew from.

Remove water sprouts that grow within the tree. Water sprouts are small, fast-growing branches that grow straight up from another branch. They may have many thorns. They tend to grow well beyond the main canopy of the tree. Water sprouts should be removed back to the branch they grew out from.

Remove suckers. Suckers are shoots that grow out from the trunk below the graft. They are actually part of the rootstock. The graft usually has a bump around the trunk about 6 to 12 inches above the ground.

If your citrus tree is too tall to reach the fruit you can selectively remove branches to control the height. Limbs that hang so low that they touch the ground can also be selectively removed. This should be done late winter or early spring. It is not recommended that you heavily prune citrus. Only take off what is needed.

Mature citrus trees need fertilizing. They should be fertilized 3 times a year (February, May and October). The University of Florida recommends an 8-8-8 analysis with micronutrients is a good general fertilizer for citrus trees. Although Pinellas County has a new fertilizer ordinance in which it states no phosphorus unless a soil ph test confirming the need for phosphorus in your soil. Higher analysis formulations such as a 12-0-12 or 15-0-14 are used on mature trees. Phosphorus is the middle number in the fertilizer analysis. In the Pinellas County area we usually have enough available phosphorus in our soils and adding more to our soils can become a problem by polluting our lakes and ponds.
If you feel your tree may need phosphorus you can get a soil ph test done at the University of Florida. For a fee of 7.00 you can get the ph of your soil and find out how much phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and potassium is in your soil.

As you can see citrus trees are very easy to maintain. Below are some helpful fact sheets about growing and caring for new and mature citrus trees. You can also call our Lawn and Garden Hotline at 582-2110 (Monday, Tuesday and Thursday from 9:00 am to 12:00 pm and 1:00 pm to 4:00 pm) and a horticulturist will be happy to answer your questions

Your Florida Dooryard Citrus Guide- Bearing Trees (Years 3 to 5+)

Citrus Culture In the Home Landscape

Diagnosing Dooryard Citrus Problems

Citrus Problems in the Home Landscape

Your Florida Dooryard Citrus Guide- Pruning

Soil Ph Form

February 22, 2010

Florida Green Jobs 101

February 22, 2010
Vestina F. Crayton, Extension Specialist, Pinellas County Extension

In June 2009, Workforce Florida, Inc assembled a team of experts from various sectors of the business, academic, and government communities to develop a working definition of a ‘green’ job. Input from the general public was included in these discussions. This meeting led to the creation of a report Defining Green Jobs for Florida- A Report of the Sustainability Infrastructure Committee of Workforce Florida, Inc., which defines a ‘green’ job as a job that “ increases the conservation and sustainability of natural resources for the benefit of Floridians. This includes jobs that reduce energy usage or lower carbon emissions, and protect Florida’s natural resources. Green jobs should provide worker-friendly conditions, pay sustainable wages and offer opportunities for continued skill training and career growth.”

Who Is Assessing the Issues in Florida?
Workforce Florida Inc. is comprised of 47 leaders from the business community many of whom are appointed by Governor Charlie Crist. Others are appointed by the House Speaker and Senate President. This group develops policies that help businesses recruit and maintain qualified and skilled laborers for today and years to come. Addressing the needs of the employee is also a major factor in devising the appropriate strategy.

Agency for Workforce Innovation (AWI) is the state level organization that implements the policies created by Workforce Florida, manages federal and state workforce funds and provide technical support to the 24 regional workforce boards across the state.

Regional Workforce Boards act as a facilitator and liaison to businesses and job seekers to receive the applicable services for their specific needs. These local one-stop centers connect businesses with skilled employees. In addition, these centers provide training for unskilled labor to meet the businesses need.

What are the benefits of understanding the definition of a green job?
For individuals- College freshmen, doctoral students, career changers and the unemployed who want to take advantage of the opportunities this green economy will provide, will benefit from understanding what is considered a green job because it will assist with focusing their efforts towards the appropriate resources for training, academic requirements and certifications.

For Business Leaders- Business owners will benefit by being more competitive for available green job training grant funds and bank loans to provide additional skills for existing staff and possibly expand their business thereby creating new job opportunities.

For Academia – Academic and technical institutions must provide the necessary educational programs from certifications to doctoral degrees to ensure that as businesses begin to expand and/or require existing staff to acquire these special skills, they are positioned and equipped to provide the training.

At the time that this article is being written, green jobs are evolving and there are still many unanswered questions and much debate happening. Researchers, business, community and government leaders are among some of the experts diligently working to answer these questions. The green economy is not a trend or a fad; it will become a way of life. From design conception to a consumer-ready product, all aspects of energy efficiency, weatherization, and creating renewable energy sources are some of the industries that will blossom and yield endless opportunities.

How do I prepare for the green economy?
While the green economy is in the process of defining itself, this is the time to stay tuned-in to what is happening at the federal, state and local levels of government. Pay close attention to what types of policies are being created and implemented, what types of funds are being made available and where are they being distributed. By following these simple steps, you will be in a better position to accept the challenges and prosper in this green economy.

To learn more about the green job market, visit and register for the next Green Job Market in Pinellas County Webinar. For the latest in sustainability news and information, subscribe to our Thinking Green Blog.

Cornelius. Andra S. & McMullan. Deborah 2009 DEFINING GREEN JOBS FOR FLORIDA – A Report of the Sustainability/Infrastructure Committee of Workforce Florida, Inc.

Workforce Florida inc. Workforce Florida, Inc

Agency for Workforce Innovation (AWI) Agency for Workforce Innovation (AWI)

Worknet Pinellas Worknet Pinellas

February 17, 2010

Learn about Harnessing Solar Power in the Sunshine State

Ever have a burning desire to harness the energy of Florida’s abundant sunshine? The University of Florida’s Doug Gregory, a leading solar energy technology specialist, will lead a class on how to make use of this free and renewable energy source in the Sunshine State. Pinellas County Extension specialists will provide information on incentives and programs aimed at saving homeowners money.

The class will be held at Pinellas County Extension, 12520 Ulmerton Road, Largo, on Saturday, Feb. 20, from 10 a.m. to noon. The cost is $15. As space is limited, registration MUST be completed by 9 a.m. on Friday, Feb. 19. No same-day registrations will be accepted.

To register, visit our Online Class Registration.

For information about this class on solar power or other sustainable living classes, contact James Stevenson, Extension Specialist, at or (727) 582-2100.

February 15, 2010

New Year, New Face, New Direction!

It’s been a busy year already especially if you’re the newest member of the UF/IFAS team in the Pinellas County Extension office. Let me introduce myself – my name is Ramona Madhosingh-Hector and I joined the team on January 4th as an Urban Sustainability Agent.

I’ve worked in the coastal arena for almost five years and I am familiar with the challenges facing coastal communities. Although not a native Floridian, my expertise with island environments makes me well suited to living in and meeting the challenges facing Pinellas County. I’ve worked actively with federal and state government to implement and direct national and state directives for coastal management in the State of Florida and my experience with federal and state legislation relating to coasts, estuaries and urban planning will be an asset in my current job portfolio.

As a member of Extension’s Sustainable Living program area, I will work with the Pinellas County Planning Department to update the county’s Land Development Regulations (code) and align it with the sustainable policies in the county’s Comprehensive Plan. I will also work on strengthening the county’s green commitment through certification at the GOLD level via the Green Local Government designation program offered by the Florida Green Building Coalition.

I will become a regular contributor to the online writing forums here at Pinellas County Extension but I wanted to take this opportunity to leave you with a few words of wisdom as it relates to earth’s resources and our responsibility to sustainably manage them for succeeding generations.

"However fragmented the world, however intense the national rivalries, it is an inexorable fact that we become more interdependent every day. {…} The sea, the great unifier, is man's only hope. Now, as never before, the old phrase has a literal meaning: We are all in the same boat."
— Jacques Cousteau, quoted in "National Geographic" [1981]

"When we tug at a single thing in nature, we find it attached to the rest of the world”
— John Muir

Glad to be aboard!

Ramona Madhosingh-Hector
M.S.P. Urban and Regional Planning (FSU)
M.S. Environmental Science (FAMU)
B.S. Agriculture (UWI, Trinidad and Tobago)

February 10, 2010

Extension Workshop will Focus on Finances

In these tough economic times, it’s more important than ever that individuals gain an understanding of how to establish and meet financial goals that will see them into the future.

Coming in March, Pinellas Extension offers the three-part seminar Focus on Finances, which will give participants valuable insight on how to better manage their personal finances.

Extension Specialist Karen Saley leads each session. The first workshop takes place on Wednesday, March 10, from 6 to 8 p.m., with subsequent sessions on March 17 and March 24. The cost is $15 for the entire series. Participants are encouraged to attend all three sessions as new topics will be discussed at each meeting. Those who attend all three sessions will be eligible to receive free, one-on-one financial counseling from a member of the Financial Planners Association of Tampa Bay.

To register for the event, visit, click Online Class Registration, and then click the Families & Consumers tab. Interested parties may also call (727) 582-2100 to register.

Pinellas County Extension is a partnership between Pinellas County government and the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences as part of a nationwide network of land grant universities. The University of Florida is an equal access/equal opportunity institution.

The mission of Pinellas County Extension is to provide research-based knowledge and education programs enabling people to make practical decisions to improve their quality of life and the world around them. Education focuses on sustainable living, lawn and garden, families and consumers, and 4-H youth development.

Pinellas County Extension is located at 12520 Ulmerton Road in Largo. For more information, visit or call (727) 582-2100.

Pinellas County Extension programs are open to all persons regardless of gender, race, nationality, ethnicity, age, creed or disability. Persons with disabilities should contact the main office at (727) 582-2100 at least 10 working days before the event so that proper consideration can be given to the request.

February 8, 2010

Consumer Friendly Credit Cards?

By Karen Saley, Extension Specialist, Pinellas County Extension

The Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act of 2009 was signed into law by President Barack Obama on May 22, 2009. Some limited changes took place in August of 2009, but the most significant changes will begin February 22, 2010. These changes will make it easier for the consumer to understand their credit card statements because credit card companies will be required to provide clear, concise information regarding terms, agreements, and payoff amounts. There are also new rules regarding rates, fees, and limits as well as changes to billing and payments.

With close to 80 percent of Americans owning at least one credit card and nearly 50 percent carrying a balance these new rules will make it easier for consumers to understand the ramifications of using credit cards. Americans are currently paying about 15 billion dollars a year in credit card fees which makes these new rules more important than ever. Here are some of the highlights.

Your credit card company will be required to give you a 45 day notice before they can:
· Increase your interest rate
· Change annual fees, cash advance fees, and late fees
· Make other significant changes to the terms of your credit card
If your credit card issuer intends to make changes to the terms of your card, it must give you the option to cancel the card before these changes take effect. If you choose not to accept the new terms the credit card company can close your account and possibly increase your monthly payment in order to force you to pay off the balance in a shorter period of time.

Clearly defined payoff amounts:
Your credit card company will now have to disclose how long it will take to pay off your balance making the minimum payment and the total amount you will pay over that time period. Some people may or may not want to know this information, but it will certainly be an eye-opener for many. For those that take that information to heart, your statement will also show how much your monthly payment must be in order to pay off that same amount in 3 years.

There are a two warnings that must be clearly stated so the consumer will know exactly what the penalties will be if they make a late or minimum payment.

No interest rate increase for the first year:
Your card issuer can no longer arbitrarily raise your interest rate in the first year you have your credit card except in these circumstances.
· Your card has a variable interest rate
· There is an introductory rate offer that reverts to a standard rate after a certain period of time
· You are more than 60 days late in paying your bill
· If you are in a workout agreement with the bank and you do not make your payments
If your credit card company does increase your interest rate after the first year, the new rate can only be applied to new purchase. They cannot apply the higher rate to your existing balance.

Credit card issuers can no longer automatically process transactions that will put the card holder over their limit. They are required to give cardholders the opportunity to opt-in to over-the-limit fees. If you choose not to opt-in to the over-the-limit-fees, use your credit card and your purchase puts you over your limit, the transaction will be denied.

Timely mailing:
Your credit card issuer must mail your billing statement at least 21 days before your due date or you can't be charged a late fee and finance charges cannot be applied to the balance. This 21 day rule also applies to any grace period you may have on your credit card.

Universal default:
The CARD Act bans universal default. This is a clause the credit card companies use to increase your interest rate when you have made a late payment on another, unrelated credit card.

Interest calculations:
The double billing cycle method of calculating finance charges is no longer legal. The double billing cycle method of calculating interest allows the credit card issuers to calculate interest due not only on your current balance, but also on the previous months balance, even if that balance was paid in full.

These are just some of the new rules that will take effect on February 22, 2010. For more information click on the following link, and don’t forget to take a good look at your next credit card statement.

February 3, 2010

Things to Do in the Late Winter Lawn and Garden

By Andy Wilson, Senior Extension Specialist, Pinellas County Extension

The severe (by our local standards) cold in early January damaged many cold tender landscape plants. For most cold-damaged plants it is good idea to delay pruning until after the danger of additional freezes is past (late February). At that time the plants can be cut back to living wood. To determine where the wood is alive, scratch the bark of a branch, beginning out toward the branch tip, to expose the cambium layer that lies just under the bark. Where this layer is green the wood is alive, while it will be brown or black where the wood is dead. If you’re a nervous pruner, remember that, given time, the plants will resprout on their own where the wood is alive, removing all doubt.

With palms, avoid the temptation to immediately trim damaged leaves. Instead, wait to remove damaged leaves until the palm has produced 2 or 3 new leaves. You can, however, go ahead and apply copper fungicide. The copper fungicide should be directed to the spear leaf and bud area. Before spraying, gently tug on the spear leaf, the newest unopened frond, to see if it easily pulls out. If it does, remove it and be sure to direct the copper fungicide spray down into this area using the force of the spray to help clean out any decayed material. Repeat the copper fungicide application in 10 days. Although it has not been fully proven, it is thought that this treatment may increase the chances that cold-damaged palms will survive by protecting the bud from bud-rotting bacteria and fungi. If the bud dies, it is only a matter of time before the palm dies also, since it is from this bud that all new growth of the palm is produced. Patience is important since it may take up to 7 months for new growth to emerge, and this is only way to tell if the bud has survived. More information on treatment of cold-damaged palms can be found here:
There are other tasks in the winter lawn and landscape. Here are a few:

Apply crabgrass control- Crabgrass is one of the most common weed problems in lawns in our area. Probably the most practical way for homeowners to control it is by applying a preemergence herbicide in early February. Preemergence herbicides prevent weed seed from germinating. Timing of the application is important. Once the seeds have germinated they are no longer susceptible to preemergence herbicides. Among available preemergence herbicides for use on both bahiagrass and St. Augustinegrass are some containing benefin, benefin+oryzalin, benefin+trifluralin, napropamide, oryzalin, pendimethalin and prodiamine. Be sure to read and follow all label directions. Also, remember that a healthy lawn is more resistant to weed invasion than one that is thin due to improper fertilization, uncontrolled disease or insect problems, mowing too closely or other problems caused by pests or poor care. Proper maintenance is an important part of an overall weed management program.

Fertilize Citrus- Fertilization of established citrus trees can be important for the best possible fruit production. For young trees, a balanced fertilizer like an 8-8-8 analysis can be used. For older trees, a fertilizer with less phosphorous (the middle number of the 3 numbers of the fertilizer analysis) such as a 12-0-12 or 15-0-14 can be used.

Cut back ornamental grasses- Most ornamental grasses can be cut back sometime in February. At the same time, remove any accumulation of dead growth from them. This helps to stimulate vigorous new growth. In the wild, many grasses are re-invigorated by periodic fires. Cutting ornamental grasses back annually has much the same effect in the landscape. More information on care and selection of ornamental grasses can be found here:

Cool season annuals- Pots of cool season annuals can add color to freeze damaged landscapes. Cool season annuals should, with some care, remain attractive until about May when high temperatures begin to take their toll. Some of the possible choices include pansy, petunia, calendula and dianthus. If the pots can be moved to a protected area if more cold threatens, the list can be expanded to include many more cold tender plants including impatiens, begonias, and salvia. Use a well drained-potting mix and be sure that any containers being used have drain holes in them. The containers can be fertilized with controlled-release fertilizers or water-soluble fertilizers. When repeat applications will be needed will vary with the product. Some controlled-release fertilizers will not need to be reapplied for several months while water soluble fertilizers may need to be reapplied every one to two weeks. Follow the label directions.

Roses- Bush roses can be given their major pruning of the year in February. Prune back branches that are crossed and rubbing, dead or diseased wood and branches smaller than the diameter of a pencil. Old canes that no longer flower well can be removed. Prune back the remaining canes by 1/3 to 1/2 of their current length. Pruning encourages the production of new growth. Since roses bloom on new growth this annual pruning is necessary for the best flowering. It is a good idea to remove all the remaining leaves on the bushes after pruning and then spray with a fungicide, such as copper fungicide. Spraying for black spot fungus will be needed on a weekly basis once new growth emerges. Effective controls for black spot include products containing triforine, chlorothalonil, mancozeb, myclobutanil or propiconazole. Spraying for black spot is unfortunately a major part of the work needed to successfully grow roses in Florida. Begin fertilizing roses monthly at this time also. More information on growing roses in Florida can be found here:

Working in the lawn and garden is great way to get some exercise and fresh air and clear the mind, and it can have a positive effect on property values. What’s not to like about all that?

February 1, 2010

Engaging Your Kids in Science, Engineering, and Technology

By Tegan Strautmann, Pinellas County Extension Volunteer Intern

Everyday when you turn on the news, radio, or open up the newspaper you see evidence of science, engineering, and technology advancing at a very rapid pace. Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea seem to be leaps and bounds ahead of America. Whether it’s with cars, cell phones, robots, or celestial-body-revolving satellites, they have beaten us to the punch. As sad as it is to say, America is not responsible for the start of much of this progression. We, as a country, are falling behind in our science, engineering, and technology fields for various reasons and many believe it is time the tables were turned.

One easy way we can start the mend of this misfortune is to further implement science, engineering, and technology in our children’s education, in school and out. This would be the first step in giving America the change of pace that it needs. If you teach children HOW to think like a scientist, engineer, or technology expert it will allow their brain to grow and develop the skills to actually become one.

That leads me to the point of this article, scientific inquiry. There are four basic steps in this process. It was stated that “At all stages, factual knowledge is not as important as critical thinking skills, including: 1) knowing and applying scientific explanations to the natural world, 2) generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations, 3) understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge, and 4) participating in scientific practices and discourse.” Let me elaborate.

The first step in this process is evaluating the question at hand. Putting something intriguing in a child’s hand or puzzling in their mind gives them what it takes to get their “wheels-a-rolling” or brain really thinking. Providing them with a broad question will give them the chance to brainstorm and come up with many different solutions or answers to the question. This allows them to use their creativity, something that most scientist, engineers, and technologist find imperative to discover new things and to create new designs.

Second, a hypothesis needs to be formed. This allows a child to establish an explanation from which they can outline potential predictions. “What will be the outcome of your experiment and why will that happen?” This is a simple question to ask them to help them develop their hypothesis before going on to the third and most important step.

Step number three is experimentation and exploration. This hands-on element is one of the most significant steps in the scientific process. Why? This gives children the experience they need to understand what is happening the way that it is happening. Furthermore, this provides them with the opportunity to compare different ways of doing things. It shows them changing one component of the experiment may yield entirely different results. Witnessing this change will help them comprehend the science, engineering, or technology behind the experimentation or tests performed. In addition, this may even help them form their hypothesis for future experiments as well.

Lastly, discussing their observations will lead them to form a set of conclusions. Ask them “Was your hypothesis accurate? Did you predictions make sense? How can you explain what happened during your experiment?” This will give them the skills to use the data they collected during their experiment. If they don’t know how to interpret and relay to others what their experiment demonstrated, what was the point in doing the experiment in the first place?

Some programs across the country, such as 4-H SET (Science, Engineering & Technology) have already begun this innovative process that is providing children with the skills and abilities that it will take to become the scientists and engineers of OUR future. Increasing global competitiveness by advancing our technology with techniques like these will be the key factor to helping America get back on top!

Encourage your kids to visit the 4-H SET Kids web pages which will provide them with dozens of fun, hands-on educational games to increase their science, engineering, and technology abilities.


Science with Kids, Science by Kids

Critical Indicators of Youth Development Outcomes for 4-H National Mission Mandates